When tissue is injured, it causes a release of pro-inflammatory substances (e.g. Bradykinin, Prostaglandins) that activate a channel on nerves called the “Transient receptor potential V1” (TrpV1) cation channel, also known as the capsacin receptor. When this channel is turned on, it results in nerve release of substances that cause inflammation (substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)) leading to leaky blood vessels (swelling), hypersensitivity, and painful sensations.

It is postulated that dextrose and mannitol, the active ingredients of Neural Prolotherapy, bind to and inhibit the TrpV1 nerve receptors, preventing this cascade and restoring normal nerve function.